Bio-medical waste is hazardous with a potential to spread infection; and generation and release of high levels of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Segregation at source is the crux of bio-medical waste management as only about 15% to 20% of waste is infectious in nature. The quantum of medical waste that is generated in India is estimated to be 250-400 gm per bed per day in a hospital and 200-300 g per bed per day in a general practitioners’ clinic (e.g. a 100 bedded hospital will generate about 40 kg of hospital waste/day).
A detailed situation analysis was carried out during the preparatory phase of the project in five selected states of India, namely, Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Odisha and Punjab covering bio-medical waste management in healthcare facilities and Common Biomedical Waste Treatment Facilities (CBWTFs) covering 57 CBWTFs, which is 40% of total CBWTFs in the country. The amount of PCDD/PCDFF (dioxin and furans) releases was estimated to be 105.44 g I-TEQ/y using the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) toolkit.